Kuyini Ukunyuka Kwejubane?

Ukukhuphuka ngesivinini kubuyela emsukweni wokuqwala okuncintisanayo ngo-1940 eSoviet Russia lapho isikhathi esathathwa ukuqeda imizila emide futhi enzima kwakuyimethrikhi yokushaya amagoli. Ukuncintisana ngamakhanda kwakuwumkhuba ojwayelekile phakathi kwabagibeli beSoviet futhi kwethulwa emhlabeni ngo-1976 ngomncintiswano wokuqala wamazwe omhlaba owawubanjelwe edolobheni laseRussia IGagra.

Ukukhuphuka ngejubane kwanamuhla kuyimpi esondelene nesikhathi esisheshayo odongeni lwamamitha ayishumi nanhlanu. Ifile futhi ifihle amadigri amahlanu, udonga lwejubane luyindlela eyakhelwe mpo enezindlela ezimbili ezifanayo ezingaguquki. Ngokungafani nokuguqa nokuhola lapho abagibeli kufanele bahlaziye ngokushesha futhi bavumelane nezinkinga nemizila ebekwe ngqo kumjikelezo ngamunye, abagibeli bejubane bangachitha iminyaka befunda imemori yemisipha kanye nokuziphatha okungagunda izingxenyana zesekhondi kusukela ngesikhathi sabo. Abasubathi abanejubane kunabo bonke emhlabeni bakhuphuka ngamamitha ayishumi nanhlanu phakathi kwemizuzwana engu-6.99 no-5.48. Ukukhuphuka ngejubane ukuqhuma okukhulu kwamandla ezemidlalo okuthi kulabo abangazi lutho, kufihle ukuthi kunzima kanjani ngempela. Izikhathi ezisheshayo zirekhodwa kumasekhondi angu-0.01 kusetshenziswa izingcindezi zonyawo lwepuleti ukuqala iwashi nezinzwa zokukhanya ukuze zime. Kulesi siyalo, ukushesha kakhulu ukuwina okuphezulu futhi ukuqala okungamanga okukodwa kungqongqoza umgibeli aphume emjahweni. Ngo-2016, i-IFSC yakhipha iDescent Descent ilayisensi ekhethekile yokunikeza amabhande ezimoto emicimbini yejubane lomlando womhlaba futhi imisila yenkomo yayo ephuzi esezingeni eliphakeme isiyinto ejwayelekile ezindaweni zokuzivocavoca nasemincintiswaneni emhlabeni jikelele.

Ukukhuphuka Ngejubane ku-2016 IFSC Climbing World Championship

Umncintiswano Womhlaba Wezemidlalo

Isikhathi samanje sokukhuphuka kwezemidlalo sazalwa ngo-1985 lapho abagibeli abaphezulu behlangana edwaleni lemvelo eValle Stretta ngaseBardonechia, e-Italy beSportRoccia. Izinkulungwane zababukeli zathokozisa abagibeli ababelandela imizila ephawuliwe enqamula indawo yemvelo. Izinselelo nomthelela wokuqhuba umncintiswano edwaleni elingokwemvelo kwaphoqa lo mcimbi waya ezindongeni zokwenziwa ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1980 lapho iSportRoccia yaba yisiteji kwiNdebe Yomhlaba Ekhuphukayo esanda kusungulwa.

I-World Championship yokuqala yahlelwa ngo-1991 kwathi ngonyaka olandelayo kwaqhamuka umkhakha omkhulu wabancintisana nge-Youth World Championship yokuqala eBasel, eSwitzerland okuwuphawu olucacile lokuthandwa kwezemidlalo okwandayo. Ekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ukwakhiwa kwamatshe kwaqaliswa ngokusemthethweni futhi kanye nemikhakha yokuhola nejubane kwaholela ekwakhiweni kweNdebe Yomhlaba.

Ukukhuphuka kwezemidlalo kuqhubekile nokukhula ngawo wonke ama-2000 ngezingqophamlando ezibandakanya ukufakwa kwiWorld Games and Indoor Asian Games, ukwethulwa komncintiswano we-International Paraclimbing, nokusungulwa kwe-International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC). Ngo-2013, ukukhuphuka kwezemidlalo bekusohlwini olufushane lwe-International Olympic Committee (IOC) lwama-Olimpiki ka-2020 oluletha izinga elisha lokuvezwa emhlabeni wonke kanye nokuxhaswa kwamazwe omhlaba. Ingakapheli iminyaka emibili kuqalile ukukhonjiswa kwezemidlalo eMidlalweni Yentsha Yama-Olimpiki ka-2014, i-IOC yaqinisekisa ngokusemthethweni ukufakwa kwayo Emidlalweni Yama-Olympic yaseTokyo yowezi-2020 (manje eyenzeka ngo-2021).

Izindonga ezikhuphukayo zingatholakala emazweni angaphezu kwe-140 futhi ukuthandwa kwezindawo zokuzivocavoca ezinyukayo nobukhulu bazo kanye nesikali sazo kukhula ngokushesha. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ukubamba iqhaza komhlaba wonke ekukhuphukeni imidlalo ezungeze izigidi ezingama-35 namaqembu akhuphukayo (indawo yokutshala izimpande yotshani yama-World Champions kanye namathemba ama-Olimpiki) ingatholakala ezindaweni eziningi zokuzivocavoca. Esikhathini esivela kwi-SportRoccia yokuqala, ukukhuphuka sekuguqukele ochungechungeni lwezemidlalo olwanamuhla nolungcweti olugubha isiko nomphakathi wase-alpine ngezithameli zomhlaba wonke.

Ukulinganisa Umholi, Isivinini, neBouldering

Imincintiswano yokuqwala ezemidlalo yakhelwe eduze kwamatshe, ukuhola, kanye nejubane. Ekukhungeni, abagibeli banesikhathi esibekiwe sokufaka amaphuzu abo ngamabili kuphela aphethe amaphuzu okukhiqiza kulo mncintiswano wamasu. Amaphuzu atholakala lapho umgibeli ekhombisa ukulawula okuphezulu futhi, noma umzila obanjiwe ophakathi nendawo obekwe njengobambe ibhonasi. Izikhulu ziqinisekisa ukuthi ukulawula kutholakala lapho umgibeli ethinta phezulu noma ukubamba ibhonasi ngezandla zombili imizuzwana emithathu. Inombolo yemizamo yokufinyelela ekulawuleni ukuguquguquka okungeziwe okwenza umgibeli abe nenani eliphakeme kakhulu leziqongo ezilawulwayo kwinani elincane lemizamo owinile. Izikolo zebhonasi zisetshenziswa kuphela njengabahlukanisi bamaphuzu aphezulu. Imijikelezo yeziqu imvamisa ifaka izinkinga zamatshe ezinhlanu ezine kuphela ukunqoba kuma-semi-final nakuma-final wokugcina. Ngenkathi inhloso yokulawula ukusethwa kungumgomo kuzo zombili izingcezu zamadwala nokuhola, umgibeli oholayo unendlela ende futhi enzima yokunqoba, uma bekwazi ukuhlala odongeni.

Ukukhuphuka komthofu kungumcimbi wokukhuthazela lapho abagibeli beqopha khona intambo yokulandela umkhondo bangene ngokushesha ukuze bavikele njengoba bekhuphuka. Kukhona ithuba elilodwa kuphela ekukhuphukeni komthofu ngamaphuzu aphezulu anikezwe imbangi olawula indawo ephezulu kakhulu. Abagibeli abahlukanisiwe ezifundweni futhi bavunyelwe ukubuka abanye abancintisana nabo ngaphambi kwemizamo yabo. Kuzobhekwa imizuliswano yamanqamu neyamanqamu futhi abasubathi banikezwa isikhathi semizuzu eyisithupha yokubuka ukuthi babheke umzila ngaphambi kokungena bodwa. Ngabanye, abancintisana babizwa ngokuhlukaniswa kwefomu ngomzamo wabo wokuhlehlisa ukuhleleka kwezinga kumjikelezo owedlule. Imizila inesikhathi esilinganiselwe phakathi kwemizuzu eyisithupha kuya kweyisishiyagalombili futhi ibonakalisa ubunzima bemizila. Izibopho ziphukile ngenqubo yokubuyela emuva lapho kubalwa khona imiphumela yangaphambilini. Uma ukuncintisana kokuhola kuyimarathon, ijubane yi-100m dash.

Ukuphela kokuqondiswa kwekhanda nekhanda, ijubane kuyimpi esondelene nesikhathi esisheshayo odongeni lwamamitha ayishumi nanhlanu. Ifile futhi ifihle amadigri amahlanu, udonga lwejubane luyindlela eyakhelwe mpo enezindlela ezimbili ezifanayo ezingaguquki. Ngokungafani nokuguqa nokuhola lapho abagibeli kufanele bahlaziye ngokushesha futhi bavumelane nezinkinga nemizila ebekiwe, abagibeli bejubane bangachitha iminyaka befunda imemori yemisipha kanye nokuziphatha okungagunda izingxenyana zesekhondi kusukela ngesikhathi sabo. Abasubathi abanejubane kunabo bonke emhlabeni bakhuphuka ngamamitha ayishumi nanhlanu phakathi kwemizuzwana engu-6.99 no-5.48. Ukukhuphuka ngejubane ukuqhuma okukhulu kwamandla ezemidlalo okufihla okungathathwanga, ukuthi kunzima kanjani ngempela. Izikhathi zejubane zirekhodwa kumzuzwana ka-0.01 kusetshenziswa izingcindezi zonyawo lwepuleti ukuqala iwashi nezinzwa zokukhanya ukuze zime. Kulesi siyalo, okushesha kakhulu ukuwina okuphezulu. Ngo-2016, i-IFSC yakhipha iDescent Descent ilayisensi ekhethekile yokunikeza amabhande ezimoto emicimbini yejubane lomlando womhlaba futhi imisila yenkomo yayo ephuzi esezingeni eliphakeme isiyinto ejwayelekile ezindaweni zokuzivocavoca nasemincintiswaneni emhlabeni jikelele.   

Ukukhuphuka Kuba Umdlalo We-Olimpiki

Njengoba ukukhuphuka kwezemidlalo kuqhubeka nokuvela futhi iphupho lokuba ngumqansa we-Olimpiki lisondela eqinisweni kwabanye, kunokungabaza okuvela ezingxenyeni zomphakathi okhuphukayo mayelana nokushesha okusheshayo kwezinguquko nokunakwa okwandayo kwezemidlalo. Ezithendeni zesimemezelo sokuthi ukukhuphuka kwezemidlalo kuzofakwa eMidlalweni Yama-Olimpiki yaseTokyo yowezi-2020, kwaphakanyiswa ukukhathazeka ngefomethi yokuhlanganisa imigomo okuvunyelwene ngayo phakathi kwe-IOC ne-IFSC. Ngokungafani nesekethe yeNdebe Yomhlaba lapho abasubathi bakhululekile ukukhetha uhlobo olulodwa noma ngaphezulu abazoqhudelana kulo, abagibeli bama-Olimpiki bazobekwa ohlwini futhi izindondo zizonikezwa ngokususelwa kumaphuzu aqoqayo ngokuncintisana kuyo yomithathu imikhakha. Lokhu kuzohlala kuguqula umkhakha wabasubathi abebephezulu ekhadini lesikolo kusekethe Yentsha neNdebe Yomhlaba eminyakeni eyedlule. Akungabazeki, ukukhuphuka kuma-Olimpiki kuzoguqula unomphela umdlalo wezemidlalo njengoba nje ukusuka edwaleni lemvelo kuya ezindongeni zokwenziwa eminyakeni yokuqala yeSportRoccia kwashukumisela ukukhuphuka kokuncintisana ohlangothini oluthile ababengalucabanga eminyakeni engamashumi amane edlule.

Ngokushesha, phezulu, ngamandla, leso yisiqubulo semidlalo yama-Olimpiki nombono wokuthi ukukhuphuka kwezemidlalo okuncintisana kukufeza ngokuqinile. Ekugcineni, isasasa ngokukhuphuka kokuqala kwe-Olimpiki lingaba yimbabazane njengoba singekho isiqinisekiso sokuthi lizohlukaniswa nemidlalo ngemuva kuka-2020. Lokho kuzoba kubantu nokuthi bazothola yini isikhalazo kwezemidlalo nakumncintiswano ngokukhuphuka kwezemidlalo futhi uxhumane nomlando ocebile wokuphishekela kwe-alpine okumele.